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Standard ST.25

Version 1.0

STANDARD FOR THE PRESENTATION OF NUCLEOTIDE AND AMINO ACID SEQUENCE LISTINGS IN PATENT APPLICATIONS
Revision adopted by the SCIT Standards and Documentation Working Group at its eleventh session on October 30, 2009

TABLE OF CONTENTS


It is recommended that Offices apply the provisions of the “Standard for the Presentation of Nucleotide and Amino Acid Sequence Listings in International Patent Applications Under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)” as set out in Annex C to the Administrative Instructions under the PCT, mutatis mutandis, to all patent applications other than the PCT international applications, noting that certain provisions specific to PCT procedures and requirements may not be applicable to patent applications other than PCT international applications*. The text of that PCT Standard is reproduced on the following pages.

 


* If, on July 1, 2009, the national law and practice applicable by an Office is not compatible with the provisions of paragraph 3(i) of the “Standard for the Presentation of Nucleotide and Amino Acid Sequence Listings in International Patent Applications Under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)” requiring that a sequence listing which is contained in the international application as filed “shall be presented as a separate part of the description, be placed at the end of the application, preferably be entitled ‘Sequence Listing’, begin on a new page and have independent page numbering”, that Office may choose not to follow those provisions for as long as that incompatibility continues.

 

ANNEX C
Standard for the presentation of nucleotide and amino acid sequence listings in international patent applications under the PCT

Introduction

1.

This Standard has been elaborated so as to provide standardization of the presentation of nucleotide and amino acid sequence listings in international patent applications. The Standard is intended to allow the applicant to draw up a single sequence listing which is acceptable to all receiving Offices, International Searching and Preliminary Examining Authorities for the purposes of the international phase, and to all designated and elected Offices for the purposes of the national phase. It is intended to enhance the accuracy and quality of presentations of nucleotide and amino acid sequences given in international applications, to make for easier presentation and dissemination of sequences for the benefit of applicants, the public and examiners, to facilitate searching of sequence data and to allow the exchange of sequence data in electronic form and the introduction of sequence data onto computerized databases.

Definitions

2.

For the purposes of this Standard:

(i) the expression “sequence listing” means a nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence listing which gives a detailed disclosure of the nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences and other available information;

(i-bis) the expression “sequence listing forming part of the international application” means a sequence listing contained in the international application as filed (as referred to in paragraph 3) or a sequence listing included in the international application by way of a correction under Rule 26, a rectification under Rule 91 or an amendment under Article 34(2)(b) of the description in relation to sequences contained in the international application as filed (as referred to in paragraph 3bis);

 (i-ter) the expression “sequence listing not forming part of the international application” means a sequence listing which does not form part of the international application but is furnished for the purposes of the international search or international preliminary examination (as referred to in paragraphs 4 and 4bis);

(ii) sequences which are included are any unbranched sequences of four or more amino acids or unbranched sequences of ten or more nucleotides. Branched sequences, sequences with fewer than four specifically defined nucleotides or amino acids as well as sequences comprising nucleotides or amino acids other than those listed in Appendix 2, Tables 123 and 4, are specifically excluded from this definition;

(iii) “nucleotides” embrace only those nucleotides that can be represented using the symbols set forth in Appendix 2, Table 1. Modifications, for example, methylated bases, may be described as set forth in Appendix 2, Table 2, but shall not be shown explicitly in the nucleotide sequence;

(iv) “amino acids” are those L-amino acids commonly found in naturally occurring proteins and are listed in Appendix 2, Table 3. Those amino acid sequences containing at least one D-amino acid are not intended to be embraced by this definition. Any amino acid sequence that contains post-translationally modified amino acids may be described as the amino acid sequence that is initially translated using the symbols shown in Appendix 2, Table 3, with the modified positions, for example, hydroxylations or glycosylations, being described as set forth in Appendix 2, Table 4, but these modifications shall not be shown explicitly in the amino acid sequence. Any peptide or protein that can be expressed as a sequence using the symbols in Appendix 2, Table 3, in conjunction with a description elsewhere to describe, for example, abnormal linkages, cross-links (for example, disulfide bridge) and end caps, non-peptidyl bonds, etc., is embraced by this definition;

(v) “sequence identifier” is a unique integer that corresponds to the SEQ ID NO assigned to each sequence in the listing;

(vi) “numeric identifier” is a three‑digit number which represents a specific data element;

(vii) “language‑neutral vocabulary” is a controlled vocabulary used in the sequence listing that represents scientific terms as prescribed by sequence database providers (including scientific names, qualifiers and their controlled-vocabulary values, the symbols appearing in Appendix 2, Tables 123 and 4, and the feature keys appearing in Appendix 2, Tables 5 and 6;

(viii) “competent Authority” is the International Searching Authority that is to carry out the international search and to establish the written opinion of the International Searching Authority on the international application, or the International Preliminary Examining Authority that is to carry out the international preliminary examination on the international application.

Sequence listings

Sequence Listing Forming Part of the International Application

3.

A sequence listing which is contained in the international application as filed:

(i)  shall be presented as a separate part of the description, be placed at the end of the application, preferably be entitled “Sequence Listing”, begin on a new page and have independent page numbering34;  preferably, the sequence listing shall not be reproduced in any other part of the application;  subject to paragraph 36, it is unnecessary to describe the sequences elsewhere in the description;

(ii)  shall present the sequences represented in the sequence listing and other available information in the sequence listing in accordance with paragraphs 5 to 35;

(iii)  if contained in an international application filed in electronic form, shall be in an electronic document format and filed by a means of transmittal in accordance with paragraph 37.

3bis.  Any correction under Rule 26, rectification under Rule 91 or amendment under Article 34(2)(b) of the description submitted in relation to sequences contained in an international application filed in electronic form shall be submitted in the form of a sequence listing in electronic form comprising the entire listing with the relevant correction, rectification or amendment.  Any such sequence listing:

(i)  shall preferably be entitled “Sequence Listing - Correction”, “Sequence Listing - Rectification” or “Sequence Listing - Amendment”, as the case may be, and have independent page numbering34;

(ii)  shall present the sequences represented in the sequence listing and other available information in the sequence listing in accordance with paragraphs 5 to 35;  where applicable, the original numbering of the sequences in the international application as filed (as referred to in paragraph 5) shall be maintained;  otherwise, the sequences shall be numbered in accordance with paragraph 5;

(iii)  shall be in an electronic document format and filed by a means of transmittal in accordance with paragraph 38.

Sequence Listing Not Forming Part of the International Application

4.

A sequence listing furnished under Rule 13ter for the purposes of the international search or international preliminary examination:

(i)  shall preferably be entitled “Sequence Listing - Rule 13ter”;

(ii)  shall present the sequences represented in the sequence listing and other available information in the sequence listing in accordance with paragraphs 5 to 35;  where applicable, the original numbering of the sequences in the international application as filed (as referred to in paragraph 5) shall be maintained;  otherwise, the sequences shall be numbered in accordance with paragraph 5;

(iii)  if furnished on paper in accordance with Rule 13ter.1(b), shall have independent page numbering;

(iv)  if furnished in electronic form, shall be in an electronic document format and filed by a means of transmittal in accordance with paragraph 39

(v)  if furnished in electronic form together with the international application, shall be identical to the sequence listing as contained in the application and be accompanied by a statement that “the information recorded in electronic form furnished under Rule 13ter is identical to the sequence listing as contained in the international application”;

(vi)  if furnished subsequently to the filing of the international application, shall not go beyond the disclosure in the international application as filed and be accompanied by a statement to that effect;  any such sequence listing shall contain only those sequences that were disclosed in the international application as filed.

4bis.  Any correction under Rule 26, rectification under Rule 91 or amendment under Article 34(2)(b) of the description submitted in relation to sequences contained in the international application as filed shall be accompanied, for the purposes of the international search or international preliminary examination, by a sequence listing in electronic form in an electronic document format in accordance with paragraph 39, comprising the entire listing including any such correction, rectification or amendment, whenever this is required by the competent authority, unless such listing in electronic form is already available to that authority in a form and manner acceptable to it.  Any such sequence listing in electronic form:

(i)  shall preferably be entitled “Sequence Listing - Correction - Rule 13ter”, “Sequence Listing - Rectification - Rule 13ter” or “Sequence Listing - Amendment - Rule 13ter”, as the case may be;

(ii)  shall present the sequences represented in the sequence listing and other available information in the sequence listing in accordance with paragraphs 5 to 35;  where applicable, the original numbering of the sequences in the international application as filed (as referred to in paragraph 5) shall be maintained;  otherwise, the sequences shall be numbered in accordance with paragraph 5;

(iii)  shall be filed by a means of transmittal in accordance with paragraph 39;

(iv)  shall be identical to the sequence listing submitted under paragraph 3bis as a correction under Rule 26, rectification under Rule 91 or amendment under Article 34(2)(b) of the description and be accompanied by a statement that “the information recorded in electronic form furnished under Rule 13ter is identical to the sequence listing furnished as a correction under Rule 26 (or a rectification under Rule 91 or an amendment under Article 34(2)(b), as the case may be) of the description in relation to sequences contained in the international application as filed”.

Where such sequence listing in electronic form and, where applicable, such statement is not available to the competent authority, any such correction, rectification or amendment need only be taken into account by that authority for the purposes of the international search or preliminary examination to the extent that a meaningful search or preliminary examination can be carried out without such sequence listing in electronic form.

Presentation of sequences

5.

Each sequence shall be assigned a separate sequence identifier. The sequence identifiers shall begin with 1 and increase sequentially by integers. If no sequence is present for a sequence identifier, the code 000 should appear under numeric identifier <400>, beginning on the next line following the SEQ ID NO. The response for numeric identifier <160> shall include the total number of SEQ ID NOs, whether followed by a sequence or by the code 000.

6.

In the description, claims or drawings of the application, the sequences represented in the sequence listing shall be referred to by the sequence identifier and preceded by “SEQ ID NO:”.

7.

Nucleotide and amino acid sequences should be represented by at least one of the following three possibilities:

(i) a pure nucleotide sequence;

(ii) a pure amino acid sequence;

(iii) a nucleotide sequence together with its corresponding amino acid sequence.

For those sequences disclosed in the format specified in option (iii), above, the amino acid sequence must be disclosed separately in the sequence listing as a pure amino acid sequence with a separate integer sequence identifier.

Nucleotide sequences

Symbols to be used

8.

A nucleotide sequence shall be presented only by a single strand, in the 5’‑end to 3’‑end direction from left to right. The terms 3’ and 5’ shall not be represented in the sequence.

9.

The bases of a nucleotide sequence shall be represented using the one-letter code for nucleotide sequence characters. Only lower case letters in conformity with the list given in Appendix 2, Table 1, shall be used.

10.

Modified bases shall be represented as the corresponding unmodified bases or as “n” in the sequence itself if the modified base is one of those listed in Appendix 2, Table 2, and the modification shall be further described in the feature section of the sequence listing, using the codes given in Appendix 2, Table 2. These codes may be used in the description or the feature section of the sequence listing but not in the sequence itself (see also paragraph 32). The symbol “n” is the equivalent of only one unknown or modified nucleotide.

Format to be used

11.

A nucleotide sequence shall be listed with a maximum of 60 bases per line, with a space between each group of 10 bases.

12.

The bases of a nucleotide sequence (including introns) shall be listed in groups of 10 bases, except in the coding parts of the sequence. Leftover bases, fewer than 10 in number at the end of non-coding parts of a sequence, should be grouped together and separated from adjacent groups by a space.

13.

The bases of the coding parts of a nucleotide sequence shall be listed as triplets (codons).

14.

The enumeration of the nucleotide shall start at the first base of the sequence with number 1. It shall be continuous through the whole sequence in the direction 5’ to 3’. It shall be marked in the right margin, next to the line containing the one-letter codes for the bases, and giving the number of the last base of that line. The enumeration method for nucleotide sequences set forth above remains applicable to nucleotide sequences that are circular in configuration, with the exception that the designation of the first nucleotide of the sequence may be made at the option of the applicant.

15.

A nucleotide sequence that is made up of one or more non‑contiguous segments of a larger sequence or of segments from different sequences shall be numbered as a separate sequence, with a separate sequence identifier. A sequence with a gap or gaps shall be numbered as a plurality of separate sequences with separate sequence identifiers, with the number of separate sequences being equal in number to the number of continuous strings of sequence data.

Amino acid sequences

Symbols to be used

16.

The amino acids in a protein or peptide sequence shall be listed in the amino to carboxy direction from left to right. The amino and carboxy groups shall not be represented in the sequence.

17.

The amino acids shall be represented using the three-letter code with the first letter as a capital and shall conform to the list given in Appendix 2, Table 3. An amino acid sequence that contains a blank or internal terminator symbols (for example, “Ter” or “*” or “.”) may not be represented as a single amino acid sequence, but shall be presented as separate amino acid sequences (see paragraph 22).

18.

Modified and unusual amino acids shall be represented as the corresponding unmodified amino acids or as “Xaa” in the sequence itself if the modified amino acid is one of those listed in Appendix 2, Table 4, and the modification shall be further described in the feature section of the sequence listing, using the codes given in Appendix 2, Table 4. These codes may be used in the description or the feature section of the sequence listing but not in the sequence itself (see also paragraph 32). The symbol “Xaa” is the equivalent of only one unknown or modified amino acid.

Format to be used

19.

A protein or peptide sequence shall be listed with a maximum of 16 amino acids per line, with a space provided between each amino acid.

20.

Amino acids corresponding to the codons in the coding parts of a nucleotide sequence shall be placed immediately under the corresponding codons. Where a codon is split by an intron, the amino acid symbol should be given below the portion of the codon containing two nucleotides.

21.

The enumeration of amino acids shall start at the first amino acid of the sequence, with number 1. Optionally, the amino acids preceding the mature protein, for example pre‑sequences, pro‑sequences, pre‑pro‑sequences and signal sequences, when present, may have negative numbers, counting backwards starting with the amino acid next to number 1. Zero (0) is not used when the numbering of amino acids uses negative numbers to distinguish the mature protein. It shall be marked under the sequence every five amino acids. The enumeration method for amino acid sequences set forth above remains applicable for amino acid sequences that are circular in configuration, with the exception that the designation of the first amino acid of the sequence may be made at the option of the applicant.

22.

An amino acid sequence that is made up of one or more non‑contiguous segments of a larger sequence or of segments from different sequences shall be numbered as a separate sequence, with a separate sequence identifier. A sequence with a gap or gaps shall be numbered as a plurality of separate sequences with separate sequence identifiers, with the number of separate sequences being equal in number to the number of continuous strings of sequence data.

Other available information in the sequence listing

23.

The order of the items of information in the sequence listings shall follow the order in which those items are listed in the list of numeric identifiers of data elements as defined in Appendix 1.

24.

Only numeric identifiers of data elements as defined in Appendix 1 shall be used for the presentation of the items of information in the sequence listing. The corresponding numeric identifier descriptions shall not be used. The provided information shall follow immediately after the numeric identifier while only those numeric identifiers for which information is given need appear on the sequence listing. Two exceptions to this requirement are numeric identifiers <220> and <300>, which serve as headers for “Feature” and “Publication Information”, respectively, and are associated with information in numeric identifiers <221> to <223> and <301> to <313>, respectively. When feature and publication information is provided in the sequence listing under those numeric identifiers, numeric identifiers <220> and <300>, respectively, should be included, but left blank. Generally, a blank line shall be inserted between numeric identifiers when the digit in the first or second position of the numeric identifier changes. An exception to this general rule is that no blank line should appear preceding numeric identifier <310>. Additionally, a blank line shall precede any repeated numeric identifier.

Mandatory data elements

25.

The sequence listing shall include, in addition to and immediately preceding the actual nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence, the following items of information defined in Appendix 1 (mandatory data elements):

  • <110> Applicant name
  • <120> Title of invention
  • <160> Number of SEQ ID NOs
  • <210> SEQ ID NO: x
  • <211> Length
  • <212> Type
  • <213> Organism
  • <400> Sequence

Where the name of the applicant (numeric identifier <110>) is written in characters other than those of the Latin alphabet, it shall also be indicated in characters of the Latin alphabet either as a mere transliteration or through translation into English.

The data elements, except those under numeric identifiers <110>, <120> and <160>, shall be repeated for each sequence included in the sequence listing. Only the data elements under numeric identifiers <210> and <400> are mandatory if no sequence is present for a sequence identifier (see paragraph 5, above, and SEQ ID NO: 4 in the example depicted in Appendix 3 of this Standard).

26.

In addition to the data elements identified in paragraph 25, above, when a sequence listing is furnished at any time prior to the assignment of an application number, the following data element shall be included in the sequence listing:

  • <130> File reference

27.

In addition to the data elements identified in paragraph 25, above, when a sequence listing is furnished at any time following the assignment of an application number, the following data elements shall be included in the sequence listing:

  • <140> Current patent application
  • <141> Current filing date

28.

In addition to the data elements identified in paragraph 25, above, when a sequence listing is filed relating to an application which claims the priority of an earlier application, the following data elements shall be included in the sequence listing:

  • <150> Earlier patent application
  • <151> Earlier application filing date

29.

If “n” or “Xaa” or a modified base or modified/unusual L-amino acid is used in the sequence, the following data elements are mandatory:

  • <220> Feature
  • <221> Name/key
  • <222> Location
  • <223> Other information

30.

If the organism (numeric identifier <213>) is “Artificial Sequence” or “Unknown”, the following data elements are mandatory:

  • <220> Feature
  • <223> Other information

Optional data elements

31.

All data elements defined in Appendix 1, not mentioned in paragraphs 25 to 30, above, are optional (optional data elements).

Presentation of features

32.

When features of sequences are presented (that is, numeric identifier <220>), they shall be described by the “feature keys” set out in Appendix 2, Tables 5 and 6.35

Free text

33.

“Free text” is a wording describing characteristics of the sequence under numeric identifier <223> (Other information) which does not use language‑neutral vocabulary as referred to in paragraph 2(vii).

34.

The use of free text shall be limited to a few short terms indispensable for the understanding of the sequence. It shall not exceed four lines with a maximum of 65 characters per line for each given data element, when written in English. Any further information shall be included in the main part of the description in the language thereof.

35.

Any free text should preferably be in the English language.

Repetition of free text in main part of description

36.

Where the sequence listing forming part of the international application contains free text, any such free text shall be repeated in the main part of the description in the language thereof.  It is recommended that the free text in the language of the main part of the description be put in a specific section of the description called “Sequence Listing Free Text”.

Sequence listings in electronic form

37.

Any sequence listing referred to in paragraph 3 contained in an international application filed in electronic form shall be in an electronic document format and be filed by a means of transmittal that has been specified by the receiving Office for the purposes of filing of international applications in electronic form, provided that any such sequence listing shall preferably be in the electronic document format specified in paragraph 40 and be filed, if possible, by a means of transmittal which has been specified by both the receiving Office and the competent authority.36, 37

38.

Any sequence listing in electronic form referred to in paragraph 3bis shall be in an electronic document format that has been specified by the receiving Office (in the case of a correction) or by the competent authority (in the case of a rectification or an amendment) for the purposes of filing of international applications in electronic form, provided that any such listing shall preferably be in the electronic document format specified in paragraph 40.  Any such listing shall be filed by a means of transmittal which has been specified by the receiving Office or the competent authority, as applicable, for the purposes of this paragraph;  if possible, it shall preferably be filed by a means of transmittal which has been specified by both the receiving Office and the competent authority.38

39.

Any sequence listing in electronic form referred to in paragraphs 4 and 4bis furnished for the purposes of the international search or international preliminary examination shall be in the electronic document format specified in paragraph 40 and be filed by a means of transmittal which has been specified by the competent authority for the purposes of this paragraph.

40.

For the purposes of the international search and international preliminary examination, any sequence listing in electronic form shall be contained within one electronic file encoded using IBM39 Code Page 437, IBM Code Page 93240 or a compatible code page to represent the sequence listing as set out in paragraphs 5 to 36 with no other codes included.  A compatible code page, as would be required for, for example, Japanese, Chinese, Cyrillic, Arabic, Greek or Hebrew characters, is one that assigns the Roman alphabet and numerals to the same hexadecimal positions as do the specified code pages.

41.

Any sequence listing in the electronic document format specified in paragraph 40 shall preferably be created by dedicated software such as PatentIn.

Procedure before designated and elected offices

42.

For the purposes of the procedure before a designated or elected Office before which the processing of an international application which contains the disclosure of one or more nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences has started (see Rule 13ter.3):

(i)  any reference to the receiving Office or the competent authority shall be construed as a reference to the designated or elected Office concerned;

(ii)  any reference to a sequence listing which is included in the international application by way of a correction under Rule 26, a rectification under Rule 91 or an amendment under Article 34(2)(b) of the description in relation to sequences contained in the application as filed shall be construed to also include any sequence listing included in the application, under the national law applied by the designated or elected Office concerned, by way of a correction (of a formality defect), rectification (of an obvious mistake) or amendment of the description in relation to sequences contained in the application as filed;

(iii)  any reference to a sequence listing furnished for the purposes of international search or international preliminary examination shall be construed to also include any such listing furnished to the designated or elected Office concerned for the purposes of national search or examination by that Office;

(iv)  the designated or elected Office concerned may invite the applicant to furnish to it, within a time limit which shall be reasonable under the circumstances, for the purposes of national search and/or examination, a sequence listing in electronic form complying with this Standard, unless such listing in electronic form is already available to that Office in a form and manner acceptable to it.

APPENDICES

  • Appendix 1:  Numeric identifiers

  • Appendix 2:  Nucleotide and amino acid symbols and feature table
    • Table 1:  List of nucleotides
    • Table 2:  List of modified nucleotides
    • Table 3:  List of amino acids
    • Table 4:  List of modified and unusual amino acids
    • Table 5:  List of feature keys related to nucleotide sequences
    • Table 6:  List of feature keys related to protein sequences
  • Appendix 3:  Specimen sequence listing

APPENDIX 1:  Numeric identifiers

Only numeric identifiers as defined below may be used in sequence listings submitted in applications. The text of the data element headings given below shall not be included in the sequence listings.

Numeric identifiers of mandatory data elements, that is, data elements which must be included in all sequence listings (see paragraph 25 of this Standard: items 110, 120, 160, 210, 211, 212, 213 and 400) and numeric identifiers of data elements which must be included in circumstances specified in this Standard (see paragraphs 26, 27, 28, 29 and 30 of this Standard: items 130, 140, 141, 150 and 151, and 220 to 223) are marked by the symbol “M”.

Numeric identifiers of optional data elements (see paragraph 31 of this Standard) are marked by the symbol “O”.

Numeric Identifier Numeric Identifier Description Mandatory (M) or
Optional (O)
Comment
<110> Applicant name M where the name of the applicant is written in characters other than those of the Latin alphabet, the same shall also be indicated in characters of the Latin alphabet either as a mere transliteration or through translation into English
<120> Title of invention M  
<130> File reference M,
in the circumstances specified in paragraph 26 of this Standard
see paragraph 26 of this Standard
<140> Current patent application M,
in the circumstances specified in paragraph 27 of this Standard
see paragraph 27 of this Standard; the current patent application shall be identified, in the following order, by the two-letter code indicated in accordance with WIPO Standard ST.3 and the application number (in the format used by the industrial property Office with which the current patent application is filed) or, for an international application, by the international application number
<141> Current filing date M,
in the circumstances specified in paragraph 27 of this Standard
see paragraph 27 of this Standard; the date shall be indicated in accordance with WIPO Standard ST.2 (CCYY MM DD)
<150> Earlier patent application M,
in the circumstances specified in paragraph 28 of this Standard
see paragraph 28 of this Standard; the earlier patent application shall be identified, in the following order, by the two-letter code indicated in accordance with WIPO Standard ST.3 and the application number (in the format used by the industrial property Office with which the earlier patent application was filed) or, for an international application, by the international application number
<151> Earlier application filing date M,
in the circumstances specified in paragraph 28 of this Standard
see paragraph 28 of this Standard; the date shall be indicated in accordance with WIPO Standard ST.2 (CCYY MM DD)
<160> Number of SEQ ID NOs M  
<170> Software O  
<210> Information for
SEQ ID NO: x
M response shall be an integer representing the SEQ ID NO shown
<211> Length M sequence length expressed in number of base pairs or amino acids
<212> Type M type of molecule sequenced in SEQ ID NO: x, either DNA, RNA or PRT; if a nucleotide sequence contains both DNA and RNA fragments, the value shall be “DNA”; in addition, the combined DNA/RNA molecule shall be further described in the <220> to <223> feature section
<213> Organism M Genus Species (that is, scientific name) or “Artificial Sequence” or “Unknown”
<220> Feature M,
in the circumstances specified in paragraph 29 and 30 of this Standard
leave blank; see paragraphs 29 and 30 of this Standard; description of points of biological significance in the sequence in SEQ ID NO: x) (may be repeated depending on the number of features indicated)
<221> Name/key M,
in the circumstances specified in paragraph 29 of this Standard
see paragraph 29 of this Standard; only those keys as described in Table 5 or 6 of Appendix 2 shall be used
<222> Location M,
in the circumstances specified in paragraph 29 of this Standard
see paragraph 29 of this Standard;
– from (number of first base/amino acid in the feature)
– to (number of last base/amino acid in the feature)
– base pairs (numbers refer to positions of base pairs in a nucleotide sequence)
– amino acids (numbers refer to positions of amino acid residues in an amino acid sequence)
– whether feature is located on the complementary strand to that filed in the sequence listing
<223> Other information: M,
in the circumstances specified in paragraphs 29 and 30 of this Standard
see paragraphs 29 and 30 of this Standard; any other relevant information, using language neutral vocabulary, or free text (preferably in English); any free text is to be repeated in the main part of the description in the language thereof (see paragraph 36 of this Standard); where any modified base or modified/unusual L‑amino acid appearing in Appendix 2, Tables 2 and 4, is in the sequence, the symbol associated with that base or amino acid from Appendix 2, Tables 2 and 4, should be used
<300> Publication information O leave blank; repeat section for each relevant publication
<301> Authors O  
<302> Title O title of publication
<303> Journal O journal name in which data published
<304> Volume O journal volume in which data published
<305> Issue O journal issue number in which data published
<306> Pages O journal page numbers on which data published
<307> Date O journal date on which data published; if possible, the date shall be indicated in accordance with WIPO Standard ST.2 (CCYY MM DD)
<308> Database accession number O accession number assigned by database including database name
<309> Database entry date O date of entry in database; the date shall be indicated in accordance with WIPO Standard ST.2 (CCYY MM DD)
<310> Document number O document number, for patent type citations only; the full document shall specify, in the following order, the two-letter code indicated in accordance with WIPO Standard ST.3, the publication number indicated in accordance with WIPO Standard ST.6, and the kind-of-document code indicated in accordance with WIPO Standard ST.16
<311> Filing date O document filing date, for patent-type citations only; the date shall be indicated in accordance with WIPO Standard ST.2 (CCYY MM DD)
<312> Publication date O document publication date; for patent-type citations only; the date shall be indicated in accordance with WIPO Standard ST.2 (CCYY MM DD)
<313> Relevant residues in
SEQ ID NO: x: from to
O  
<400> Sequence M SEQ ID NO: x should follow the numeric identifier and should appear on the line preceding the sequence (see Appendix 3)

APPENDIX 2:  Nucleotide and amino acid symbols and feature table

Table 1: List of nucleotides
Symbol Meaning Origin of designation
a A adenine
g G guanine
c C cytosine
t T thymine
u U uracil
r g or a purine
y t/u or c pyrimidine
m a or c amino
k g or t/u keto
s g or c strong interactions
3H-bonds
w a or t/u weak interactions
2H-bonds
b g or c
or t/u
not a
d a or g
or t/u
not c
h a or c
or t/u
not g
v a or g
or c
not t, not u
n a or g or c
or t/u, unknown, or other
any

Table 2: List of modified nucleotides
Symbol Meaning
ac4c 4-acetylcytidine
chm5u 5-(carboxyhydroxymethyl)uridine
cm 2’-O-methylcytidine
cmnm5s2u 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine
cmnm5u 5-carboxymethylaminomethyluridine
d Dihydrouridine
fm 2’-O-methylpseudouridine
gal q beta, D-galactosylqueuosine
gm 2’-O-methylguanosine
i Inosine
i6a N6-isopentenyladenosine
m1a 1-methyladenosine
m1f 1-methylpseudouridine
m1g 1-methylguanosine
m1i 1-methylinosine
m22g 2,2-dimethylguanosine
m2a 2-methyladenosine
m2g 2-methylguanosine
m3c 3-methylcytidine
m5c 5-methylcytidine
m6a N6-methyladenosine
m7g 7-methylguanosine
mam5u 5-methylaminomethyluridine
mam5s2u 5-methoxyaminomethyl-2-thiouridine
man q beta, D-mannosylqueuosine
mcm5s2u 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine
mcm5u 5-methoxycarbonylmethyluridine
mo5u 5-methoxyuridine
ms2i6a 2-methylthio-N6-isopentenyladenosine
ms2t6a N-((9-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-2-methylthiopurine-6-yl)carbamoyl)threonine
mt6a N-((9-beta-D-ribofuranosylpurine-6-yl)N-methylcarbamoyl)threonine
mv uridine-5-oxyacetic acid-methylester
o5u uridine-5-oxyacetic acid
osyw wybutoxosine
p pseudouridine
q queuosine
s2c 2-thiocytidine
s2t 5-methyl-2-thiouridine
s2u 2-thiouridine
s4u 4-thiouridine
t 5-methyluridine
t6a N-((9-beta-D-ribofuranosylpurine-6-yl)-carbamoyl)threonine
tm 2’-O-methyl-5-methyluridine
um 2’-O-methyluridine
yw wybutosine
x 3-(3-amino-3-carboxy-propyl)uridine, (acp3)u

Table 3: List of amino acids
Symbol Meaning
Ala Alanine
Cys Cysteine
Asp Aspartic Acid
Glu Glutamic Acid
Phe Phenylalanine
Gly Glycine
His Histidine
Ile Isoleucine
Lys Lysine
Leu Leucine
Met Methionine
Asn Asparagine
Pro Proline
Gln Glutamine
Arg Arginine
Ser Serine
Thr Threonine
Val Valine
Trp Tryptophan
Tyr Tyrosine
Asx Asp or Asn
Glx Glu or Gln
Xaa unknown or other

Table 4: List of Modified and Unusual Amino Acids
Symbol Meaning
Aad 2-Aminoadipic acid
bAad 3-Aminoadipic acid
bAla beta-Alanine, beta-Aminopropionic acid
Abu 2-Aminobutyric acid
4Abu 4-Aminobutyric acid, piperidinic acid
Acp 6-Aminocaproic acid
Ahe 2-Aminoheptanoic acid
Aib 2-Aminoisobutyric acid
bAib 3-Aminoisobutyric acid
Apm 2-Aminopimelic acid
Dbu 2,4 Diaminobutyric acid
Des Desmosine
Dpm 2,2’-Diaminopimelic acid
Dpr 2,3-Diaminopropionic acid
EtGly N-Ethylglycine
EtAsn N-Ethylasparagine
Hyl Hydroxylysine
aHyl allo-Hydroxylysine
3Hyp 3-Hydroxyproline
4Hyp 4-Hydroxyproline
Ide Isodesmosine
aIle allo-Isoleucine
MeGly N-Methylglycine, sarcosine
MeIle N-Methylisoleucine
MeLys 6-N-Methyllysine
MeVal N-Methylvaline
Nva Norvaline
Nle Norleucine
Orn Ornithine

Table 5: List of feature keys related to nucleotide sequences
Key Description
allele a related individual or strain contains stable, alternative forms of the same gene which differs from the presented sequence at this location (and perhaps others)
attenuator (1)  region of DNA at which regulation of termination of transcription occurs, which controls the expression of some bacterial operons;(2)  sequence segment located between the promoter and the first structural gene that causes partial termination of transcription
C_region constant region of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, and T-‑cell receptor alpha, beta, and gamma chains; includes one or more exons depending on the particular chain
CAAT_signal CAAT box; part of a conserved sequence located about 75 bp up-stream of the start point of eukaryotic transcription units which may be involved in RNA polymerase binding; consensus=GG (C or T) CAATCT
CDS coding sequence; sequence of nucleotides that corresponds with the sequence of amino acids in a protein (location includes stop codon); feature includes amino acid conceptual translation
conflict independent determinations of the “same” sequence differ at this site or region
D-loop displacement loop; a region within mitochondrial DNA in which a short stretch of RNA is paired with one strand of DNA, displacing the original partner DNA strand in this region; also used to describe the displacement of a region of one strand of duplex DNA by a single stranded invader in the reaction catalyzed by RecA protein
D-segment diversity segment of immunoglobulin heavy chain, and T‑cell receptor beta chain
enhancer a cis‑acting sequence that increases the utilization of (some) eukaryotic promoters, and can function in either orientation and in any location (upstream or downstream) relative to the promoter
exon region of genome that codes for portion of spliced mRNA; may contain 5’UTR, all CDSs, and 3’UTR
GC_signal GC box; a conserved GC‑rich region located upstream of the start point of eukaryotic transcription units which may occur in multiple copies or in either orientation; consensus=GGGCGG
gene region of biological interest identified as a gene and for which a name has been assigned
iDNA intervening DNA; DNA which is eliminated through any of several kinds of recombination
intron a segment of DNA that is transcribed, but removed from within the transcript by splicing together the sequences (exons) on either side of it
J_segment joining segment of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, and T‑cell receptor alpha, beta, and gamma chains
LTR long terminal repeat, a sequence directly repeated at both ends of a defined sequence, of the sort typically found in retroviruses
mat_peptide mature peptide or protein coding sequence; coding sequence for the mature or final peptide or protein product following post-translational modification; the location does not include the stop codon (unlike the corresponding CDS)
misc_binding site in nucleic acid which covalently or non‑covalently binds another moiety that cannot be described by any other Binding key (primer_bind or protein_bind)
misc_difference feature sequence is different from that presented in the entry and cannot be described by any other Difference key (conflict, unsure, old_sequence, mutation, variation, allele, or modified_base)
misc_feature region of biological interest which cannot be described by any other feature key; a new or rare feature
misc_recomb site of any generalized, site‑specific or replicative recombination event where there is a breakage and reunion of duplex DNA that cannot be described by other recombination keys (iDNA and virion) or qualifiers of source key (/insertion_seq, /transposon, /proviral)
misc_RNA any transcript or RNA product that cannot be defined by other RNA keys (prim_transcript, precursor_RNA, mRNA, 5’clip, 3’clip, 5’UTR, 3’UTR, exon, CDS, sig_peptide, transit_peptide, mat_peptide, intron, polyA_site, rRNA, tRNA, scRNA, and snRNA)
misc_signal any region containing a signal controlling or altering gene function or expression that cannot be described by other Signal keys (promoter, CAAT_signal, TATA_signal, ‑35_signal, ‑10_signal, GC_signal, RBS, polyA_signal, enhancer, attenuator, terminator, and rep_origin)
misc_structure any secondary or tertiary structure or conformation that cannot be described by other Structure keys (stem_loop and D-loop)
modified_base the indicated nucleotide is a modified nucleotide and should be substituted for by the indicated molecule (given in the mod_base qualifier value)
mRNA messenger RNA; includes 5’ untranslated region (5’UTR), coding sequences (CDS, exon) and 3’ untranslated region (3’UTR)
mutation a related strain has an abrupt, inheritable change in the sequence at this location
N_region extra nucleotides inserted between rearranged immunoglobulin segments
old_sequence the presented sequence revises a previous version of the sequence at this location
polyA_signal recognition region necessary for endonuclease cleavage of an RNA transcript that is followed by polyadenylation; consensus=AATAAA
polyA_site site on an RNA transcript to which will be added adenine residues by post-transcriptional polyadenylation
precursor_RNA any RNA species that is not yet the mature RNA product; may include 5’ clipped region (5’clip), 5’ untranslated region (5’UTR), coding sequences (CDS, exon), intervening sequences (intron), 3’ untranslated region (3’UTR), and 3’ clipped region (3’clip)
prim_transcript primary (initial, unprocessed) transcript; includes 5’ clipped region (5’clip), 5’ untranslated region (5’UTR), coding sequences (CDS, exon), intervening sequences (intron), 3’ untranslated region (3’UTR), and 3’ clipped region (3’clip)
primer_bind non-covalent primer binding site for initiation of replication, transcription, or reverse transcription; includes site(s) for synthetic, for example, PCR primer elements
promoter region on a DNA molecule involved in RNA polymerase binding to initiate transcription
protein_bind non-covalent protein binding site on nucleic acid
RBS ribosome binding site
repeat_region region of genome containing repeating units
repeat_unit single repeat element
rep_origin origin of replication; starting site for duplication of nucleic acid to give two identical copies
rRNA mature ribosomal RNA; the RNA component of the ribonucleoprotein particle (ribosome) which assembles amino acids into proteins
S_region switch region of immunoglobulin heavy chains; involved in the rearrangement of heavy chain DNA leading to the expression of a different immunoglobulin class from the same B‑cell
satellite many tandem repeats (identical or related) of a short basic repeating unit; many have a base composition or other property different from the genome average that allows them to be separated from the bulk (main band) genomic DNA
scRNA small cytoplasmic RNA; any one of several small cytoplasmic RNA molecules present in the cytoplasm and (sometimes) nucleus of a eukaryote
sig_peptide signal peptide coding sequence; coding sequence for an N-terminal domain of a secreted protein; this domain is involved in attaching nascent polypeptide to the membrane; leader sequence
snRNA small nuclear RNA; any one of many small RNA species confined to the nucleus; several of the snRNAs are involved in splicing or other RNA processing reactions
source identifies the biological source of the specified span of the sequence; this key is mandatory; every entry will have, as a minimum, a single source key spanning the entire sequence; more than one source key per sequence is permissible
stem_loop hairpin; a double-helical region formed by base-pairing between adjacent (inverted) complementary sequences in a single strand of RNA or DNA
STS Sequence Tagged Site; short, single-copy DNA sequence that characterizes a mapping landmark on the genome and can be detected by PCR; a region of the genome can be mapped by determining the order of a series of STSs
TATA_signal TATA box; Goldberg-Hogness box; a conserved AT‑rich septamer found about 25 bp before the start point of each eukaryotic RNA polymerase II transcript unit which may be involved in positioning the enzyme for correct initiation; consensus=TATA(A or T)A(A or T)
terminator sequence of DNA located either at the end of the transcript or adjacent to a promoter region that causes RNA polymerase to terminate transcription; may also be site of binding of repressor protein
transit_peptide transit peptide coding sequence; coding sequence for an N‑terminal domain of a nuclear‑encoded organellar protein; this domain is involved in post-translational import of the protein into the organelle
tRNA mature transfer RNA, a small RNA molecule (75‑85 bases long) that mediates the translation of a nucleic acid sequence into an amino acid sequence
unsure author is unsure of exact sequence in this region
V_region variable region of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, and T‑cell receptor alpha, beta, and gamma chains; codes for the variable amino terminal portion; can be made up from V_segments, D_segments, N_regions, and J_segments
V_segment variable segment of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, and T‑cell receptor alpha, beta, and gamma chains; codes for most of the variable region (V_region) and the last few amino acids of the leader peptide
variation a related strain contains stable mutations from the same gene (for example, RFLPs, polymorphisms, etc.) which differ from the presented sequence at this location (and possibly others)
3’clip 3’-most region of a precursor transcript that is clipped off during processing
3’UTR region at the 3’ end of a mature transcript (following the stop codon) that is not translated into a protein
5’clip 5’-most region of a precursor transcript that is clipped off during processing
5’UTR region at the 5’ end of a mature transcript (preceding the initiation codon) that is not translated into a protein
-10_signal pribnow box; a conserved region about 10 bp upstream of the start point of bacterial transcription units which may be involved in binding RNA polymerase; consensus=TatAaT
-35_signal a conserved hexamer about 35 bp upstream of the start point of bacterial transcription units; consensus=TTGACa [  ] or TGTTGACA [  ]

Table 6: List of feature keys related to protein sequences
Key Description
CONFLICT different papers report differing sequences
VARIANT authors report that sequence variants exist
VARSPLIC Description of sequence variants produced by alternative splicing
MUTAGEN site which has been experimentally altered
MOD_RES post-translational modification of a residue
   ACETYLATION N‑terminal or other
   AMIDATION generally at the C‑terminal of a mature active peptide
   BLOCKED Undetermined N‑ or C‑terminal blocking group
   FORMYLATION of the N-terminal methionine
   GAMMA‑CARBOXYGLUTAMIC ACID HYDROXYLATION of asparagine, aspartic acid, proline or lysine
   METHYLATION generally of lysine or arginine
   PHOSPHORYLATION of serine, threonine, tyrosine, aspartic acid or histidine
   PYRROLIDONE CARBOXYLIC ACID N‑terminal glutamate which has formed an internal cyclic lactam
   SULFATATION generally of tyrosine
LIPID covalent binding of a lipidic moiety
   MYRISTATE myristate group attached through an amide bond to the N‑terminal glycine residue of the mature form of a protein or to an internal lysine residue
   PALMITATE palmitate group attached through a thioether bond to a cysteine residue or through an ester bond to a serine or threonine residue
   FARNESYL farnesyl group attached through a thioether bond to a cysteine residue
   GERANYL‑GERANYL geranyl‑geranyl group attached through a thioether bond to a cysteine residue
   GPI‑ANCHOR glycosyl‑phosphatidylinositol (GPI) group linked to the alpha-carboxyl group of the C‑terminal residue of the mature form of a protein
   N‑ACYL DIGLYCERIDE N‑terminal cysteine of the mature form of a prokaryotic lipoprotein with an amide-linked fatty acid and a glyceryl group to which two fatty acids are linked by ester linkages
DISULFID disulfide bond; the ‘FROM’ and ‘TO’ endpoints represent the two residues which are linked by an intra-chain disulfide bond; if the ‘FROM’ and ‘TO’ endpoints are identical, the disulfide bond is an interchain one and the description field indicates the nature of the cross-link
THIOLEST thiolester bond; the ‘FROM’ and ‘TO’ endpoints represent the two residues which are linked by the thiolester bond
THIOETH thioether bond; the ‘FROM’ and ‘TO’ endpoints represent the two residues which are linked by the thioether bond
CARBOHYD glycosylation site; the nature of the carbohydrate (if known) is given in the description field
METAL binding site for a metal ion; the description field indicates the nature of the metal
BINDING binding site for any chemical group (co‑enzyme, prosthetic group, etc.); the chemical nature of the group is given in the description field
SIGNAL extent of a signal sequence (prepeptide)
TRANSIT extent of a transit peptide (mitochondrial, chloroplastic, or for a microbody)
PROPEP extent of a propeptide
CHAIN extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein
PEPTIDE extent of a released active peptide
DOMAIN extent of a domain of interest on the sequence; the nature of that domain is given in the description field
CA_BIND extent of a calcium-binding region
DNA_BIND extent of a DNA-binding region
NP_BIND extent of a nucleotide phosphate binding region; the nature of the nucleotide phosphate is indicated in the description field
TRANSMEM extent of a transmembrane region
ZN_FING extent of a zinc finger region
SIMILAR extent of a similarity with another protein sequence; precise information, relative to that sequence is given in the description field
REPEAT extent of an internal sequence repetition
HELIX secondary structure:  Helices, for example, Alpha‑helix, 3(10) helix, or Pi‑helix
STRAND secondary structure:  Beta‑strand, for example, Hydrogen bonded beta‑strand, or Residue in an isolated beta‑bridge
TURN secondary structure  Turns, for example, H‑bonded turn (3‑turn, 4‑turn or  5‑turn)
ACT_SITE amino acid(s) involved in the activity of an enzyme
SITE any other interesting site on the sequence
INIT_MET the sequence is known to start with an initiator methionine
NON_TER the residue at an extremity of the sequence is not the terminal residue; if applied to position 1, this signifies that the first position is not the N‑terminus of the complete molecule; if applied to the last position, it signifies that this position is not the C‑terminus of the complete molecule; there is no description field for this key
NON_CONS non consecutive residues; indicates that two residues in a sequence are not consecutive and that there are a number of unsequenced residues between them
UNSURE uncertainties in the sequence; used to describe region(s) of a sequence for which the authors are unsure about the sequence assignment

APPENDIX 3:  Specimen sequence listing

[End of Standard]


34 Editor's Note:  No independent page numbering is required where the sequence listing is contained in an international application filed in electronic form and is in the electronic document format referred to in paragraph 40.

35 Editor's Note:  These tables contain extracts from the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank Feature Table (nucleotide sequences) and the SWISS PROT Feature Table (amino acid sequences).

36 Editor's Note:  Where a sequence listing in electronic form complying with this Standard is not available to the competent authority in a form and manner acceptable to it (that is, in particular, where it is not available to it in the electronic document format specified in paragraph 40), the competent authority may invite the applicant to furnish to it such a sequence listing in electronic form (see Rule 13ter).

37 Editor's Note:  Irrespective of the electronic document format of the sequence listing, the spatial relationship (e.g., columns and rows) of the data elements included in the sequence listing and the format of the actual nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences, as specified in this Annex, shall be maintained.

38 Editor's Note:  Where a replacement sequence listing in electronic form including any correction, rectification or amendment is not available to the competent authority in a form and manner acceptable to it (that is, in particular, where it is not available to it in the electronic document format specified in paragraph 40), any such correction, rectification or amendment need only be taken into account by that authority for the purposes of the international search or preliminary examination to the extent that a meaningful search or preliminary examination can be carried out without the replacement sequence listing (see paragraph 4bis, above).  See also Editor's Note 36, which equally applies to any replacement sequence listing in electronic form referred to in paragraph 3bis.

39Editor's Note:  IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machine Corporation, United States of America.

40Editor's Note:  The specified code pages are de facto standards for personal computers.